OBJECTIVE: To assess the longitudinal development of intelligence and its relation to school abstract performance in a nationwide cohort of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) survivors and evaluate predictors of outcome at 8 years of age.

METHODS: Repeated measurements assessed intelligence of neonatal ECMO survivors at 2, 5, and 8 years (n = 178) with the use of validated, standardized instruments. Selective attention (n = 148) and type of education were evaluated in the 8-year-olds.

RESULTS: Intelligence remained stable and average across development (mean ± SD IQ: at 2 years, 102 ± 18; at 5 years, 100 ± 17; and at 8 years, 99 ± 17 [P = .15]). Children attending regular education without the need for help (n = 101; mean z score: –1.50 ± 1.93) performed significantly better on the selective attention task compared with those children who needed extra help (n = 65; mean z score: –2.54 ± 3.18) or those attending special education (n = 13; mean z score: –4.14 ± 3.63) (P = .03). However, only children attending special education had below-average intelligence (mean IQ: 76 ± 15), compared with average intelligence for those attending regular education, both with help (mean IQ: 95 ± 15) and without help (mean IQ: 105 ± 16). Compared with children with other diagnoses, children with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) scored significantly lower on both IQ (CDH, mean IQ: 93 ± 20; meconium aspiration syndrome, mean IQ: 100 ± 15; other diagnoses, mean IQ: 100 ± 19 [P = .04]) and selective attention (CDH, mean z score: –3.48 ± 3.46; meconium aspiration syndrome, mean z score: –1.60 ± 2.13; other diagnoses, mean z score: –1.65 ± 2.39 [P = .002]).

CONCLUSIONS: For the majority of neonatal ECMO survivors, intelligence testing alone did not identify those at risk for academic problems. We propose internationally standardized follow-up protocols that focus on long-term, problem-oriented neuropsychological assessment.

Additional Metadata
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-1313, hdl.handle.net/1765/93652
Journal Pediatrics (English Edition)
Citation
Schiller, R.M, Madderom, M.J, Reuser, J.J.C.M, Steiner, K, Gischler, S.J, Tibboel, D, … IJsselstijn, H. (2016). Neuropsychological Follow-up After Neonatal ECMO. Pediatrics (English Edition), 138(5), 1–11. doi:10.1542/peds.2016-1313