Trans fatty acid (TFA) intake has been identified as a health hazard in adults, but data on preschool children are scarce. We analyzed the data from the Spanish INMA Project to determine the intake of total, industrial and natural TFA, their main sources and the associated socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in children aged 4–5 (n = 1793). TFA intake was estimated using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire, and multiple linear regression was used to explore associated factors. The mean daily intakes of total, industrial and natural TFA were 1.36, 0.60, and 0.71 g/day, respectively. Ten percent of the children obtained >1% of their energy intake from TFA. The main sources of industrial TFA were fast food, white bread and processed baked goods. Milk, red and processed meat and processed baked goods were the main sources of natural TFA. Having parents from countries other than Spain was significantly associated with higher natural TFA (in mg/day) intake (β 45.5) and television viewing was significantly associated with higher industrial TFA intake (β 18.3). Higher fruits and vegetables intake was significantly associated with lower intakes of all TFAs, whereas higher sweetened beverages intake was significantly associated with lower total and natural TFA intake. Thus, total and industrial TFA intake was associated with less healthy food patterns and lifestyles in Spanish preschool children.

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Keywords Dietary fats, Preschool child, Risk factors, Trans fatty acids
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Journal Nutrients
Scholz, A. (Alexander), Gimenez-Monzo, D. (Daniel), Navarrete-Muñoz, E.M, Garcia-De-la-Hera, M. (Manuela), Fernández-Somoano, A, Tardón, A, … Vioque, J. (2016). Dietary intake of trans fatty acids in children aged 4–5 in Spain: The INMA cohort study. Nutrients, 8(10). doi:10.3390/nu8100625