This article analyses network organizations founded by descendants of Turkish migrants in the Netherlands and France. By surveying members of two such organizations and interviewing several of their board members, we learn how these organizations function, their success in building and extending social networks, and their efficacy at improving labour market prospects for young second-generation professionals of Turkish descent. Our findings reveal a hybrid structure, whereby the organizations gear many of their activities towards mainstream society. In comparison to traditional immigrant organizations, their attitude is more open to other social groups, yet they still have a clear stronghold in the ethnic immigrant community. We conclude that ethnicity is not the main element in the successful second generation’s organizing process. Factors such as educational trajectories, professional ambitions, feelings of responsibility for other members and newly acquired socioeconomic status are the main reasons for this group to organize.

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Ethnic and Racial Studies
Centre for Rotterdam Cultural Sociology (CROCUS)

Vermeulen, F. (Floris), & Keskiner, E. (2017). Bonding or bridging? Professional network organizations of second-generation Turks in the Netherlands and France. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 40(2), 301–320. doi:10.1080/01419870.2017.1245429