Introduction: Many people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) suffer from concomitant depression or anxiety. Whether MCI increases the risk of future depression or anxiety is unknown. Methods: In the Rotterdam Study, cross-sectional (n = 4168) and longitudinal associations (n = 2967) of MCI with . Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-depressive and anxiety disorders-were assessed (2002-2005 to 2009-2011). Results: At baseline, 413 persons had MCI; 125 (22 MCI and 103 non-MCI) had a depressive disorder and 330 had an anxiety disorder (46 MCI and 284 non-MCI). In longitudinal depression analysis, of the 212 persons with prevalent MCI, 6 (2.8%) developed depression compared with 29 (1%) in the nonexposed group. In longitudinal anxiety analysis, 11 (7.3%) of the 151 with prevalent MCI developed anxiety, compared with 75 (3.4%) in nonexposed group. Persons with MCI had more depressive and anxiety disorders and also a higher risk of developing depressive disorder, odds ratio (OR) 3.13 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.26, 7.77), and anxiety disorder, OR 2.59 (95% CI: 1.31, 5.12). Discussion: MCI is a risk factor for dementia and for depressive and anxiety disorders, suggesting common pathological pathways for cognitive and psychiatric outcomes.

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Keywords Anxiety, Depression, Epidemiology, Longitudinal, Mild cognitive impairment, Population based
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Journal Alzheimer's & Dementia
Mirza, S.S, Ikram, M.K, Bos, D, Mihaescu, R, Hofman, A, & Tiemeier, H.W. (2017). Mild cognitive impairment and risk of depression and anxiety: A population-based study. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 13(2), 130–139. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2016.06.2361