Introduction: Many people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) suffer from concomitant depression or anxiety. Whether MCI increases the risk of future depression or anxiety is unknown. Methods: In the Rotterdam Study, cross-sectional (n = 4168) and longitudinal associations (n = 2967) of MCI with . Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-depressive and anxiety disorders-were assessed (2002-2005 to 2009-2011). Results: At baseline, 413 persons had MCI; 125 (22 MCI and 103 non-MCI) had a depressive disorder and 330 had an anxiety disorder (46 MCI and 284 non-MCI). In longitudinal depression analysis, of the 212 persons with prevalent MCI, 6 (2.8%) developed depression compared with 29 (1%) in the nonexposed group. In longitudinal anxiety analysis, 11 (7.3%) of the 151 with prevalent MCI developed anxiety, compared with 75 (3.4%) in nonexposed group. Persons with MCI had more depressive and anxiety disorders and also a higher risk of developing depressive disorder, odds ratio (OR) 3.13 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.26, 7.77), and anxiety disorder, OR 2.59 (95% CI: 1.31, 5.12). Discussion: MCI is a risk factor for dementia and for depressive and anxiety disorders, suggesting common pathological pathways for cognitive and psychiatric outcomes.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Anxiety, Depression, Epidemiology, Longitudinal, Mild cognitive impairment, Population based
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2016.06.2361, hdl.handle.net/1765/94175
Journal Alzheimer's & Dementia
Citation
Mirza, S.S, Ikram, M.K, Bos, D, Mihaescu, R, Hofman, A, & Tiemeier, H.W. (2017). Mild cognitive impairment and risk of depression and anxiety: A population-based study. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 13(2), 130–139. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2016.06.2361