Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance. In total, 138 virus species reportedly capable of infecting companion animals were of concern for human and food production animal health: 59 of these viruses were infectious for human beings, 135 were infectious for food production mammals and birds, and 22 were infectious for food production fishes. Viruses of highest concern for human health included hantaviruses, Tahyna virus, rabies virus, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Aichi virus, European bat lyssavirus, hepatitis E virus, cowpox virus, G5 rotavirus, influenza A virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production mammals and birds included bluetongue virus, African swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, porcine circovirus, classical swine fever virus, equine herpesvirus 9, peste des petits ruminants virus and equine infectious anaemia virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production fishes included cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Of particular concern as sources of zoonotic or food production animal viruses were domestic carnivores, rodents and food production animals kept as companion animals. The current list of viruses provides an objective basis for more in-depth analysis of the risk of companion animals as sources of viruses for human and food production animal health.

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Keywords Companion animal, Livestock, Virus, Zoonosis
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpa.2016.07.006, hdl.handle.net/1765/94180
Journal Journal of Comparative Pathology
Grant This work was funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme; grant id fp7/289316 - Companion Animals multisectoriaL interprofessionaL and Interdisciplinary Strategic Think tank On zoonoses (CALLISTO)
Citation
Reperant, L.A, Brown, I.H, Haenen, O.L., de Jong, M.D, Osterhaus, A.D.M.E, Papa, A, … Kuiken, T. (2016). Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals. Journal of Comparative Pathology. doi:10.1016/j.jcpa.2016.07.006