Prenatal unhealthy diet, insulin-like growth factor 2 gene (IGF2) methylation, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in youth with early-onset conduct problems
Background: Conduct problems (CP) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid and have each been linked to 'unhealthy diet'. Early-life diet also associates with DNA methylation of the insulin-like growth factor 2 gene (IGF2), involved in fetal and neural development. We investigated the degree to which prenatal high-fat and -sugar diet might relate to ADHD symptoms via IGF2 DNA methylation for early-onset persistent (EOP) versus low CP youth. Methods: Participants were 164 youth with EOP (n = 83) versus low (n = 81) CP drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We assessed if the interrelationships between high-fat and -sugar diet (prenatal, postnatal), IGF2 methylation (birth and age 7, collected from blood), and ADHD symptoms (age 7-13) differed for EOP versus low CP youth. Results: Prenatal 'unhealthy diet' was positively associated with IGF2 methylation at birth for both the EOP and low CP youth. For EOP only: (a) higher IGF2 methylation predicted ADHD symptoms; and (b) prenatal 'unhealthy diet' was associated with higher ADHD symptoms indirectly via higher IGF2 methylation. Conclusions: Preventing 'unhealthy diet' in pregnancy might reduce the risk of ADHD symptoms in EOP youth via lower offspring IGF2 methylation.
|Keywords||Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Conduct problems, Diet, DNA methylation, IGF2|
|Persistent URL||dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12589, hdl.handle.net/1765/94191|
|Journal||Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines|
Rijlaarsdam, J, Cecil, C.A.M, Walton, E, Mesirow, M.S.C. (Maurissa S. C.), Relton, C.L, Gaunt, T.R, … Barker, E.D. (Edward D.). (2017). Prenatal unhealthy diet, insulin-like growth factor 2 gene (IGF2) methylation, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in youth with early-onset conduct problems. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 58(1), 19–27. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12589