Purpose: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an established therapeutic option in selected heart failure patients (pts). However, the transvenous left ventricular (LV) lead implantation remains ineffectual in a considerable number of pts. Transapical LV (TALV) lead implantation is an alternative minimally invasive, surgical, endocardial implantation technique. The aim of the present prospective study is to determine the long-term outcome, including the cerebral thromboembolic complications, of pts who underwent TALV lead placement. Methods: Twenty-six CRT candidates (19 men (78 %); mean age 61 ± 10 years) with a previously failed transvenous approach underwent TALV lead placement as a last resort therapy. The following data was collected: mortality rate, reoperation rate, and cerebrovascular event rate. Patients underwent a cerebral CT scan to determine any possible cerebrovascular event related to the presence of the TALV lead. Results: Eleven out of 26 (47 %) patients survived after a median follow-up of 40 ± 24.5 months. Major acute ischemic stroke occurred in two cases, while in one case transient ischemic stroke was observed. Cerebral CT scan examination performed in asymptomatic patients revealed chronic ischemic lesions with minimal extension in two patients. Reoperation occurred in one case due to TALV lead fracture. Conclusions: This is the first study reporting the long-term outcome, mortality, and thromboembolic event rate exclusively after TALV lead implantation. Patients who underwent TALV lead implantation have a comparable long-term mortality rate to conventional CRT, although a major ischemic cerebrovascular event after TALV lead implantation is worrisome and has an impact on the outcome.

Additional Metadata
Keywords End-stage heart failure, Resynchronization therapy, Thromboembolic complication, Transapical left ventricle pacing
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10840-016-0206-6, hdl.handle.net/1765/94279
Journal Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology
Kis, Z. (Zsuzsanna), Arany, A. (Andrea), Gyori, G. (Gabriella), Mihalcz, A, Kardos, A, Foldesi, C, … Szili-Torok, T. (2017). Long-term cerebral thromboembolic complications of transapical endocardial resynchronization therapy. Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology, 48(2), 113–120. doi:10.1007/s10840-016-0206-6