Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir and emtricitabine prevents HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM). PrEP can be given on a daily or intermittent basis. Unfortunately, PrEP is not reimbursed in most European countries. Cost-effectiveness analyses of PrEP among MSM in Europe are absent but are key for decision makers to decide upon PrEP implementation. Methods: We developed a deterministic mathematical model, calibrated to the well defined Dutch HIV epidemic among MSM, to predict the effect and cost-effectiveness of PrEP. PrEP was targeted to 10% of highly sexually active Dutch MSM over the coming 40 years. Cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated to predict the cost-effectiveness of daily and on-demand PrEP. Cost-effectiveness ratios below €20 000 were considered to be cost-effective in this analysis. Findings: Within the context of a stable HIV epidemic, at 80% effectiveness and current PrEP pricing, PrEP can cost as much as €11 000 (IQR 9400-14 100) per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained when used daily, or as little as €2000 (IQR 1300-3000) per QALY gained when used on demand. At 80% effectiveness, daily PrEP can be considered cost-saving if the price of PrEP is reduced by 70%, and on-demand PrEP can be considered cost-saving if the price is reduced by 30-40%. Interpretation: PrEP for HIV prevention among MSM in the Netherlands is cost-effective. The use of PrEP is most cost-effective when the price of PrEP is reduced through on-demand use or through availability of generic PrEP, and can quickly be considered cost-saving. Funding: None.,
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Department of Virology

Nichols, B., Boucher, C., van der Valk, M., Rijnders, B., & van de Vijver, D.A.M.C. (David A.M.C.). (2016). Cost-effectiveness analysis of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention in the Netherlands: A mathematical modelling study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 16(12), 1423–1429. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(16)30311-5