In spite of the emergence of genome editing tools, ES cell mediated transgenesis remains the most controllable way of creating genetically modified animals. Although tetraploid (4N) complementation of 4N host embryos and ES cells, is the only method guaranteeing that offspring are entirely ES cell derived, this technique is challenging, not always successful and difficult to implement in some laboratory settings. The current study shows that pretreatment of host blastocysts with FGF4 prior to ES cell injection can provide an alternative method for the generation of animals displaying high rates of chimaerism. Chimaerism assessment in E11 fetuses and born pups shows that a large percentage of resulting conceptuses show a high ES cell contribution from implantation onwards and that developing pups do not necessitate c-section for delivery.

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Keywords Blastocyst injection, Chimaera, ES cell, FGF4, Tetraploid complementation, Transgenesis
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Journal Transgenic Research
Dupont, C. (Cathérine), Loos, F, Kong-a-San, J, & Gribnau, J.H. (2017). FGF treatment of host embryos injected with ES cells increases rates of chimaerism. Transgenic Research, 26(2), 237–246. doi:10.1007/s11248-016-9997-6