Objective: The objective of this cross-sectional study is to assess the prevalence, course, and management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children with Robin sequence (RS) aged 1–18 years. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 63 children aged 1 to18 years with RS. Patient data were collected on baseline characteristics and management. OSA was evaluated by polysomnography. Results: Sixty-three children with RS were included (median age 8.0 years) and divided into two groups based on the initial treatment: prone positioning or respiratory support. Respiratory support was more often indicated in children with a non-isolated RS (p < 0.05). At cross section, in the prone positioning group (n = 32), one child was diagnosed with OSA. In the respiratory support group (n = 31), 13 children (42 %) had respiratory problems of whom 10 needed respiratory support. Conclusions: Between the age of 1 and 18 years, almost one out of four children with RS still has respiratory problems. Children with RS, who can be treated with prone positioning only as an infant, are not likely to develop obstructive airway problems at a later age. In contrast, children who need respiratory support early after birth are at risk of continuing or re-developing OSA after the age of 1 year. Clinical relevance: This study shows that those who need respiratory support at an early age need careful monitoring until adulthood.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Airway obstruction, Obstructive sleep apnea, Robin sequence, Treatment
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-016-1985-y, hdl.handle.net/1765/94483
Journal Clinical Oral Investigations
Citation
van Lieshout, M.J.S, Joosten, K.F.M, Koudstaal, M.J, van der Schroeff, M.P, Dulfer, K, Mathijssen, I.M.J, & Wolvius, E.B. (2017). Management and outcomes of obstructive sleep apnea in children with Robin sequence, a cross-sectional study. Clinical Oral Investigations, 21(6), 1971–1978. doi:10.1007/s00784-016-1985-y