Bacterial, viral and parasitic zoonotic pathogens that transmit via the fecal-oral route have a major impact on global health. However, the mechanisms underlying the emergence of such pathogens from the animal reservoir and their persistence in the human population are poorly understood. Here, we present a framework of human-to-human transmission of zoonotic pathogens that considers the factors relevant for fecal-oral human-to-human transmission route at the levels of host, pathogen, and environment. We discuss current data gaps and propose future research directions.

Additional Metadata
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coviro.2016.11.001, hdl.handle.net/1765/94536
Journal Current Opinion in Virology
Grant This work was funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme; grant id fp7/602525 - Platform foR European Preparedness Against (Re-)emerging Epidemics (PREPARE), This work was funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme; grant id h2020/643476 - COllaborative Management Platform for detection and Analyses of (Re-)emerging and foodborne outbreaks in Europe (COMPARE)
Citation
de Graaf, M.T, Beck, R. (Relja), Caccio, S, Duim, B, Fraaij, P.L.A, Le Guyader, F.S. (Françoise S.), … Schultsz, C. (2017). Sustained fecal-oral human-to-human transmission following a zoonotic event. Current Opinion in Virology (Vol. 22, pp. 1–6). doi:10.1016/j.coviro.2016.11.001