This entry presents an overview of the development and current state of fan studies, exploring the “reverse image” of media effects. The field of fan studies offers the ultimate rebuttal of the traditional media effects-model, by stressing the independence, agency and power of media consumers vis-à-vis media producers.
After providing a short historiography of the discipline, this entry dives deeper into three themes that have been central to discussions within fan studies since its early beginnings: fan fiction, fan communities, and places of fandom.

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Keywords Fandom, appropriation, fiction, community, place
Persistent URL,
Reijnders, S.L, Zwaan, K, Duits, L, & Waysdorf, A.S. (2016). Fandom. In International Encyclopedia of Media Effects. doi:10.1002/9781118783764.wbieme0176