In this review, the relationship between changes in macrohemodynamics during the development and treatment of acute circulatory failure is discussed in the context of coherence with microcirculation and changes in lactate. In models of circulatory failure, coherence between changes in macrocirculatory and microcirculatory perfusion and coherence with subsequent changes in lactate levels are more or less preserved. However, in patients, particularly those with septic shock, these relationships are much less clear. As many factors influence the effect of circulatory failure and infection on microcirculation and on lactate levels, this should not be surprising. Resuscitation should therefore aim at adequate tissue perfusion where systemic hemodynamics, microcirculatory perfusion parameters, and lactate levels should be used in their relevant context. This results in treating the individual patient as an n = 1 experiment.

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Best Practice and Research: Clinical Anaesthesiology
Department of Intensive Care

Bakker, J. (2016). Lactate levels and hemodynamic coherence in acute circulatory failure. Best Practice and Research: Clinical Anaesthesiology (Vol. 30, pp. 523–530). doi:10.1016/j.bpa.2016.11.001