Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation may be challenging in patients with lack of venous access and who are not suitable for a standard subcutaneous ICD (S-ICD).

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Keywords Epicardial pace/sense electrode, Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, Substernal shock lead, Superior vena cava syndrome
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Journal HeartRhythm Case Reports
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Bhagwandien, R.E, Kik, C, Yap, S-C, & Szili-Török, T. (2017). Substernal ICD lead implantation in a patient not suitable for subcutaneous ICD implantation without venous access due to superior vena cava syndrome. HeartRhythm Case Reports, 3(1), 97–99. doi:10.1016/j.hrcr.2016.09.013