Aim: The weight-glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C)-insulin-glucose (WHIG) model describes the effects of changes in weight on insulin sensitivity (IS) in newly diagnosed, obese subjects receiving placebo treatment. This model was applied to a wider population of placebo-treated subjects, to investigate factors influencing the variability in IS and β-cell function.
Methods: The WHIG model was applied to the WHIG dataset (Study 1) and two other placebo datasets (Studies 2 and 3). Studies 2 and 3 consisted of nonobese subjects and subjects with advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Body weight, fasting serum insulin (FSI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c were used for nonlinear mixed-effects modelling (using NONMEM v7.2 software). Sources of interstudy variability (ISV) and potential covariates (age, gender, diabetes duration, ethnicity, compliance) were investigated.
Results: An ISV for baseline parameters (body weight and β-cell function) was required. The baseline β-cell function was significantly lower in subjects with advanced T2DM (median difference: Study 2: 15.6%, P < 0.001; Study 3: 22.7%, P < 0.001) than in subjects with newly diagnosed T2DM (Study 1). A reduction in the estimated insulin secretory response in subjects with advanced T2DM was observed but diabetes duration was not a significant covariate.
Conclusion: The WHIG model can be used to describe the changes in weight, IS and β-cell function in the diabetic population. IS remained relatively stable between subjects but a large ISV in β-cell function was observed. There was a trend towards decreasing β-cell responsiveness with diabetes duration, and further studies, incorporating subjects with a longer history of diabetes, are required.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Beta-cell function, Disease progression, Placebo treatment, Semi-mechanistic modelling, Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.13144, hdl.handle.net/1765/94761
Journal British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Note Running title: Placebo treatment in subjects with type 2 diabetes
Citation
Duong, J.K, de Winter, W. (Willem), Choy, S. (Steve), Plock, N. (Nele), Naik, H. (Himanshu), Krauwinkel, W. (Walter), … Danhof, M. (2017). The variability in beta-cell function in placebo-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes: application of the weight-HbA1c-insulin-glucose (WHIG) model. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 83(3), 487–497. doi:10.1111/bcp.13144