Context: Treatment of patients with adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) with mitotane and/or chemotherapy is often associated with toxicity and poor tumor response.Newtherapeutic options are urgently needed. Objective: The objectives of the study were to evaluate the therapeutic possibilities of temozolomide (TMZ) in ACC cells and to assess the potential predictive role of the DNA repair gene O6-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in adrenocortical tumors. Methods: Three human ACC cell lines and eight primary ACC cultures were used to assess effects of TMZ in vitro. In the cell lines, 11 normal adrenals, 16 adrenocortical adenomas, and 29 ACC, MGMT promoter methylation and expression were determined. Results: IC50 values of TMZ on cell growth were 39 μM, 38 μM, and 44 μMfor H295R, HAC15, and SW13, respectively. TMZ induced apoptosis and provoked cytotoxic and cytostatic effects by reducing the surviving fraction of ACC colonies and the colony size. TMZ thereby induced cell cycle arrests in ACC cell lines. TMZ and mitotane both inhibited growth of ACC cells cultured as threedimensional spheroids.TMZinhibited cellamountin five of eight primaryACCculturesandinduced apoptosis in seven of eight primary ACC cultures. In ACC cell lines and adrenal tissues, MGMT promoter methylation was low. In ACCs, methylation was inversely correlated with MGMT mRNA expression. MGMT protein expression was not correlated with MGMT methylation. Conclusions: For the first time, we show the therapeutic potential of temozolomide for ACC, offering an urgently needed potential alternative for patients not responding to mitotane alone or with etoposide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin. (Pre-)clinical studies are warranted to assess efficacy in vivo.,
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Department of Internal Medicine

Creemers, S., van Koetsveld, P., van den Dungen, E., Korpershoek, E., van Kemenade, F., Franssen, G., … Hofland, L. (2016). Inhibition of human adrenocortical cancer cell growth by temozolomide in vitro and the role of the MGMT gene. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 101(12), 4574–4584. doi:10.1210/jc.2016-2768