Background: Although the prominent role of TH2 cells in type 2 immune responses is well established, the newly identified type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) can also contribute to orchestration of allergic responses. Several experimental and epidemiologic studies have provided evidence that allergen-induced airway responses can be further enhanced on exposure to environmental pollutants, such as diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). However, the components and pathways responsible remain incompletely known. Objective: We sought to investigate the relative contribution of ILC2 and adaptive TH2 cell responses in a murine model of DEP-enhanced allergic airway inflammation. Methods: Wild-type, Gata-3+/nlslacZ (Gata-3-haploinsufficient), RAR-related orphan receptor α (RORα)fl/flIL7RCre (ILC2-deficient), and recombination-activating gene (Rag) 2-/- mice were challenged with saline, DEPs, or house dust mite (HDM) or DEP+HDM. Airway hyperresponsiveness, as well as inflammation, and intracellular cytokine expression in ILC2s and TH2 cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue were assessed. Results: Concomitant DEP+HDM exposure significantly enhanced allergic airway inflammation, as characterized by increased airway eosinophilia, goblet cell metaplasia, accumulation of ILC2s and TH2 cells, type 2 cytokine production, and airway hyperresponsiveness compared with sole DEPs or HDM. Reduced Gata-3 expression decreased the number of functional ILC2s and TH2 cells in DEP+HDM-exposed mice, resulting in an impaired DEP-enhanced allergic airway inflammation. Interestingly, although the DEP-enhanced allergic inflammation was marginally reduced in ILC2-deficient mice that received combined DEP+HDM, it was abolished in DEP+HDM-exposed Rag2-/- mice. Conclusion: These data indicate that dysregulation of ILC2s and TH2 cells attenuates DEP-enhanced allergic airway inflammation. In addition, a crucial role for the adaptive immune system was shown on concomitant DEP+HDM exposure.

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Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Department of Pulmonology

De Grove, K.C. (Katrien C.), Provoost, S., Hendriks, R., McKenzie, A.N.J. (Andrew N.J.), Seys, L.J.M. (Leen J.M.), Kumar, S. (Smitha), … Joos, G. (2017). Dysregulation of type 2 innate lymphoid cells and TH2 cells impairs pollutant-induced allergic airway responses. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 139(1), 246–257.e4. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2016.03.044