Objective: Within HIV-positive men having sex with men, the epidemic of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is ongoing. Transmission of resistant variants of HCV after failure of treatment with directly acting antivirals (DAA) could be a major threat to the effectivity of therapy. We determined whether HCV-resistant variants to DAAs were prevalent amongst patients with an acute HCV infection diagnosed in 2013 and 2014 in the Netherlands. Methods: Target enrichment for viral nucleic acid separation and deep sequencing were used to recover whole HCV genomes of 50 patients with an acute HCV infection. The genomes were assembled by . de novo assembly and analysed for known DAA resistance mutations. Results: In acute HCV infected treatment-naive patients, the relevant resistance-associated substitutions were Q80K (40%) in NS3/4a, M28V (24%) and Q30H combined with Y93H (2%) in NS5A and M414T (2%) or S556G (2%) in NS5b. Patients whose HCV infection failed to respond to boceprevir, peginterferon and ribavirin therapy developed mutations in NS3 at position T54A and R155K. Conclusions: Target enrichment and whole genome sequencing were successfully applied directly on clinical samples from patients with an acute HCV infection.

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Keywords Acute hepatitis C, HIV, Protease inhibitors, Resistance, Treatment
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2016.09.018, hdl.handle.net/1765/95125
Journal Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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Citation
Christiansen, M.T., Hullegie, S.J, Schutten, M, Einer-Jensen, K., Tutill, H.J., Breuer, J., & Rijnders, B.J.A. (2017). Use of whole genome sequencing in the Dutch Acute HCV in HIV study: Focus on transmitted antiviral resistance. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 23(2), 123.e1–123.e4. doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2016.09.018