Increasingly, evidence has been accumulating emphasizing the importance of looking at bipolar disorder (BD) from a neurodevelopmental and transdimensional perspective to better understand its origins and its course. In this overview article, the problems facing pathophysiological psychiatric research in BD are addressed and interpreted in the light of brain complexity. Brain complexity can be split into spatial complexity, which constitutes the physiological levels of the central nervous system (i.e., the genetic, molecular, cellular, neuronal circuit and phenomenological levels), and temporal complexity, that is, neurodevelopment. The consequences of this consideration are discussed and suggestions for clinical practice and pathophysiological psychiatric research are made.

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Bipolar Disorders (English Edition, Print)
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Haarman, B., Riemersma-Van der Lek, R., Burger, H., Drexhage, H., & Nolen, W. (2016). The dysregulated brain: Consequences of spatial and temporal brain complexity for bipolar disorder pathophysiology and diagnosis. Bipolar Disorders (English Edition, Print), 18(8), 696–701. doi:10.1111/bdi.12454