Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) has become important in the management of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD), particularly with pre-surgical planning, guidance of catheter intervention, and functional assessment of the heart. 3DE is increasingly used in children because of good acoustic windows and the non-invasive nature of the technique. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the optimal application of 3DE in CHD including technical considerations, image orientation, application to different lesions, procedural guidance, and functional assessment.

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Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Simpson, J. (John), Lopez, L. (Leo), Acar, P. (Philippe), Friedberg, M.K. (Mark K.), Khoo, N.S. (Nee S.), Ko, H.H. (H. Helen), … Shirali, G. (2017). Three-dimensional Echocardiography in Congenital Heart Disease: An Expert Consensus Document from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging and the American Society of Echocardiography. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, 30(1), 1–27. doi:10.1016/j.echo.2016.08.022