We recently introduced the potent gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) antagonist 68Ga-SB3 (68Ga-DOTA-p-Aminomethylaniline-diglycolic acid-DPhe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Leu-NHEt), showing excellent tumor localizing efficacy in animal models and in patients. By replacement of the C-Terminal Leu13-Met14-NH2 dipeptide of SB3 by Sta13-Leu14-NH2, the novel GRPR antagonist NeoBOMB1 was generated and labeled with different radiometals for theranostic use. We herein report on the biologic profile of resulting 67/68Ga-, 111In-, and 177Lu-NeoBOMB1 radioligands in GRPR-expressing cells and mouse models. The first evidence of prostate cancer lesion visualization in men using 68Ga-NeoBOMB1 and PET/CT is also presented. Methods: NeoBOMB1 was radiolabeled with 67/68Ga, 111In, and 177Lu according to published protocols. The respective metalated species natGa-, natIn-, and natLu-NeoBOMB1 were also synthesized and used in competition binding experiments against [125I-Tyr4]BBN in GRPRpositive PC-3 cell membranes. Internalization of 67Ga-, 111In-, and 177Lu-NeoBOMB1 radioligands was studied in PC-3 cells at 37°C, and their metabolic stability in peripheral mouse blood was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of blood samples. Biodistribution was performed by injecting a 67Ga-, 111In-, or 177Lu-NeoBOMB1 bolus (74, 74, or 370 kBq, respectively, 100 mL, 10 pmol total peptide6 40 nmol Tyr4-BBN: for in vivo GRPR blockade) in severe combined immunodeficiency mice bearing PC-3 xenografts. PET/CT images with 68Ga-NeoBOMB1 were acquired in prostate cancer patients. Results: NeoBOMB1 and natGa-, natIn-, and natLu-NeoBOMB1 bound to GRPR with high affinity (half maximal inhibitory concentration, 1-2 nM). 67Ga-, 111In-, and 177Lu-NeoBOMB1 specifically and strongly bound on the cell membrane of PC-3 cells displaying low internalization, as expected for receptor antagonists. They showed excellent metabolic stability in peripheral mouse blood (.95% intact at 5 min after injection). After injection in mice, all 3 (67Ga-, 111In-, and 177Lu-NeoBOMB1) showed comparably high and GRPR-specific uptake in the PC-3 xenografts (e.g., 30.6 6 3.9, 28.6 6 6.0, and .35 percentage injected dose per gram at 4 h after injection, respectively), clearing from background predominantly via the kidneys. During a translational study in prostate cancer patients, 68Ga-NeoBOMB1 rapidly localized in pathologic lesions, achieving high-contrast imaging. Conclusion: The GRPR antagonist radioligands 67Ga-, 111In-, and 177Lu-NeoBOMB1, independent of the radiometal applied, have shown comparable behavior in prostate cancer models, in favor of future theranostic use in GRPR-positive cancer patients. Such translational prospects were further supported by the successful visualization of prostate cancer lesions in men using 68Ga-NeoBOMB1 and PET/CT.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Gastrin releasing peptide receptor antagonist, Molecular Tumor Imaging, PET, Prostate cancer, Radionuclide therapy, SPECT, Theranostic applications
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.116.178889, hdl.handle.net/1765/95408
Journal The Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Citation
Nock, B.A, Kaloudi, A, Lymperis, E, Giarika, A. (Athina), Kulkarni, H.R, Klette, I, … Baüm, R.P. (2017). Theranostic perspectives in prostate cancer with the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor antagonist NeoBOMB1: Preclinical and first clinical results. The Journal of Nuclear Medicine (Vol. 58, pp. 75–80). doi:10.2967/jnumed.116.178889