Facelifts, tummy tucks and breast enlargements are no longer the privilege of the rich and the famous. Any woman can have all these and many more cosmetic surgical treatments, and an increasing number of women do. Are they having cosmetic surgery because they are duped by a male-dominated beauty system, or do they genuinely choose these operations themselves? Feminists (and others) give diametrically opposed answers to this question. At the heart of the controversy, or so I claim in this article, lies a conceptual problem about free choice; therefore, the only thing that can settle it is a conceptual analysis of "freedom". After having briefly outlined the views of both sides of the debate, I offer such an analysis.

*Beauty, *Choice Behavior, Attitude to Health, Coercion, Concept Formation, Female, Feminism, Freedom, Gender Identity, Humans, Life Style, Netherlands, Patient Acceptance of Health Care/*psychology, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Surgery, Plastic/psychology/*utilization, Women/*psychology
hdl.handle.net/1765/9557
Journal of Medical Ethics: an international peer-reviewed journal for health professionals and researchers in medical ethics
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Wijsbek, H. (2000). The pursuit of beauty: the enforcement of aesthetics or a freely adopted lifestyle?. Journal of Medical Ethics: an international peer-reviewed journal for health professionals and researchers in medical ethics. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1765/9557