The paper considers general trends of structural change in terms of averages in the general food trade. It gives an international comparison of trends concerning average shop size, number of shops per 1,000 inhabitants, the share of independents and concentration. On the basis of the evidence, three stages are proposed for the development of retail structure.,
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International Journal of Research in Marketing
Erasmus Research Institute of Management

Nooteboom, B., Thurik, R., & Vollebregt, J. A. C. (1986). An international comparison in the general food trade: cases of structural change. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 243–247. doi:10.1016/0167-8116(86)90004-2