Background: The survival rate for men with International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grade 2 prostate cancer (PCa) without invasive cribriform (CR) and intraductal carcinoma (IDC) is similar to that for ISUP grade 1. If updated into the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC Rotterdam) risk calculator number 3 (RC3), this may further improve upfront selection of men who need a biopsy. Objective: To improve the number of possible biopsies avoided, while limiting undiagnosed clinically important PCa by applying the updated RC3 for risk-based patient selection. Design, setting, and participants: The RC3 is based on the first screening round of the ERSPC Rotterdam, which involved 3616 men. In 2015, histopathologic slides for PCa cases (n = 885) were re-evaluated. Low-risk (LR) PCa was defined as ISUP grade 1 or 2 without CR/IDC. High-risk (HR) PCa was defined as ISUP grade 2 with CR/IDC and PCa with ISUP grade≥3. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: We updated the RC3 using multinomial logistic regression analysis, including data on age, PSA, digital rectal examination, and prostate volume, for predicting LR and HR PCa. Predictive accuracy was quantified using receiver operating characteristic analysis and decision curve analysis. Results and limitations: Men without PCa could effectively be distinguished from men with LR PCa and HR PCa (area under the curve 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68-0.72 and 0.92, 95% CI 0.90-0.94). At a 1% risk threshold, the updated calculator would lead to a 34% reduction in unnecessary biopsies, while only 2% of HR PCa cases would be undiagnosed. Conclusions: A relatively simple risk stratification tool augmented with a highly sensitive contemporary pathologic biopsy classification would result in a considerable decrease in unnecessary prostate biopsies and overdiagnosis of potentially indolent disease. Patient summary: We improved a well-known prostate risk calculator with a new pathology classification system that better reflects disease burden. This new risk calculator allows individualized prediction of the chance of having (potentially aggressive) biopsy-detectable prostate cancer and can guide shared decision-making when considering prostate biopsy. A highly sensitive contemporary pathologic biopsy classification further improves the predictive accuracy and clinical utility of risk prediction for detection of (clinically important) prostate cancer. Its incorporation could result in a considerable decrease in unnecessary prostate biopsies and overdiagnosis of potentially indolent disease.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Cribriform, International Society of Urological Pathology grading system, Intraductal carcinoma, Prediction model, Prognosis, Prostate cancer, Risk calculator
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2017.01.033, hdl.handle.net/1765/95845
Journal European Urology : Official Journal of the European Association of Urology
Citation
Roobol-Bouts, M.J, Verbeek, J.F.M. (Jan), van der Kwast, Th.H, Kümmerlin, I.P, Kweldam, C.F, & Leenders, G.J.H.L. (2017). Improving the Rotterdam European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator for Initial Prostate Biopsy by Incorporating the 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology Gleason Grading and Cribriform growth. European Urology : Official Journal of the European Association of Urology. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2017.01.033