Pregnant women are exposed to various chemicals, including endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as phthalates and bisphenols. Increasing evidence suggests that early life exposures to phthalates and bisphenols may contribute to cardiometabolic risks. The aim of this narrative review was to summarize current knowledge of the effects of fetal and childhood exposure to phthalates and bisphenols on child growth and child cardiometabolic outcomes and the effects on maternal outcomes. In total, 54 studies were identified and included. The majority of studies found effects of phthalates and bisphenols on maternal, child growth, and cardiometabolic outcomes. Currently results suggest that early life exposure to phthalates and bisphenols may have a substantial influence on perinatal and postnatal cardiometabolic programming. In a large part of the investigated outcomes studies show contradictory results. However, the majority of the existing evidence is based on non-cohort studies with single samples neglecting time-variant effects and complicating conclusions regarding causal inference. More studies are needed investigating the mechanisms and its potential interactions.

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Keywords Bisphenols, Cardiometabolic effects, Growth, Phthalates, Prenatal and childhood exposure, Review
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Journal Reproductive Toxicology
Philips, E.M. (Elise M.), Jaddoe, V.W.V, & Trasande, L. (Leonardo). (2017). Effects of early exposure to phthalates and bisphenols on cardiometabolic outcomes in pregnancy and childhood. Reproductive Toxicology (Vol. 68, pp. 105–118). doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2016.08.015