In 1999, Engelen and coworkers investigated colonization in Amsterdam among 259 children attending 16 day-care centers (DCCs) and among 276 children who did not attend day-care centers (NDCCs). A 1.6- to 3.4-fold increased risk for nasopharyngeal colonization was observed in children attending DCCs compared with NDCC children, while no difference in antibiotic resistance was found between groups. The serotype and genotype distributions of 305 nasopharyngeal Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates of the latter study were investigated. The predominant serotypes in both the DCC and the NDCC groups included 19F (19 and 18%, respectively), 6B (14 and 16%, respectively), 6A (13 and 7%, respectively), 23F (9 and 7%, respectively), and 9V (7 and 7%, respectively). The theoretical vaccine coverage of the 7-valent conjugate vaccine was 59% for the DCC children and 56% for the NDCC group. Genetic analysis of the pneumococcal isolates revealed 75% clustering among pneumococci isolated from DCC attendees versus 50% among the NDCC children. The average pneumococcal cluster size in the DCC group was 3.8 and 4.6 isolates for two respective sample dates (range, 2 to 13 isolates per cluster), while the average cluster size for the NDCC group was 3.0 (range, 2 to 6 isolates per cluster). Similar to observations made in other countries, these results indicate a higher risk for horizontal spread of pneumococci in Dutch DCCs than in the general population. This study emphasizes the importance of molecular epidemiological monitoring before, during, and after implementation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in national vaccination programs for children.

Additional Metadata
Keywords *Epidemiology, Molecular, Carrier State/epidemiology/*microbiology, Child Day Care Centers, Child, Preschool, Genotype, Humans, Infant, Nasopharynx/microbiology, Netherlands/epidemiology, Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology/*microbiology, Prevalence, Serotyping
Persistent URL hdl.handle.net/1765/9722
Journal Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Citation
Bogaert, D, Engelen, M.N, Timmers-Reker, A.J, Elzenaar, K.P, Peerbooms, P.G, Coutinho, R.A, … Hermans, P.W.M. (2001). Pneumococcal carriage in children in The Netherlands: a molecular epidemiological study. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1765/9722