Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a 2.5-year glucosamine sulfate intervention on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and the incidence of new-onset diabetes mellitus over 6.5 years in middle-aged women with a body mass index ≥27 kg/m2.
Methods: In total, 407 women were randomized into either oral crystalline glucosamine sulfate or placebo. At baseline, 1 year, 2.5 years, and 6.5 years, a blood sample for the HbA1c level was drawn and questionnaires were taken. After 6.5 years there were missing data for some variables, therefore, multiple imputation was used. With the imputed data, a generalized estimating equation was performed to analyze the effect of glucosamine sulfate usage over 6.5 years. Finally, these analyses were rerun for the 2 subgroups of participants with and without high HbA1c level (≥42 mmol/mol) at baseline.
Results: There was no significant effect of a 2.5-year glucosamine sulfate intervention on mean HbA1c level or on obtaining a high HbA1c level or new-onset diabetes mellitus over 6.5 years. The subgroup analyses of participants with and without high HbA1c level at baseline were also not statistically significant. However, participants with a high HbA1c level at baseline had higher odds ratios compared with the participants with a normal HbA1c at baseline.
Conclusions: There was no effect of glucosamine sulfate on mean HbA1c level nor on obtaining a high HbA1c level or new-onset diabetes mellitus over 6.5 years, especially in participants with a normal HbA1c level at baseline.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Diabetes mellitus, Glucosamine, HbA1c, Knee osteoarthritis, Overweight, Randomized controlled trial
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2016.11.038, hdl.handle.net/1765/97868
Journal The American Journal of Medicine
Citation
Gommans, Y.M.M, Runhaar, J, Jacobs, M.L, & Bierma-Zeinstra, S.M. (2017). The Effect of Prolonged Glucosamine Usage on HbA1c Levels and New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus in Overweight and Obese Middle-Aged Women. The American Journal of Medicine, 130(6), 731–737.e6. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2016.11.038