Background: Oliguria is associated with a decreased kidney- and organ perfusion, leading to organ damage and increased mortality. While the effects of correcting oliguria on renal outcome have been investigated frequently, whether urine output is a modifiable risk factor for mortality or simply an epiphenomenon remains unclear. We investigated whether targeting urine output, defined as achieving and maintaining urine output above a predefined threshold, in hemodynamic management protocols affects 30-day mortality in perioperative and critical care. Methods: We performed a systematic review with a random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regression based on search strategy through MEDLINE, EMBASE and references in relevant articles. We included studies comparing conventional fluid management with goal-directed therapy and reporting whether urine output was used as target or not, and reporting 30-day mortality data in perioperative and critical care. Results: We found 36 studies in which goal-directed therapy reduced 30-day mortality (OR 0.825; 95% CI 0.684-0.995; P = 0.045). Targeting urine output within goal-directed therapy increased 30-day mortality (OR 2.66; 95% CI 1.06-6.67; P = 0.037), but not in conventional fluid management (OR 1.77; 95% CI 0.59-5.34; P = 0.305). After adjusting for operative setting, hemodynamic monitoring device, underlying etiology, use of vasoactive medication and year of publication, we found insufficient evidence to associate targeting urine output with a change in 30-day mortality (goal-directed therapy: OR 1.17; 95% CI 0.54-2.56; P = 0.685; conventional fluid management: OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.39-1.38; P = 0.334). Conclusions: The principal finding of this meta-analysis is that after adjusting for confounders, there is insufficient evidence to associate targeting urine output with an effect on 30-day mortality. The paucity of direct data illustrates the need for further research on whether permissive oliguria should be a key component of fluid management protocols.

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Keywords Critical care, Mortality, Oliguria, Perioperative care
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Journal BMC Anesthesiology
van der Zee, E.N. (Esther N.), Egal, M, Gommers, D.A.M.P.J, & Groeneveld, A.B.J. (2017). Targeting urine output and 30-day mortality in goal-directed therapy: A systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regression. BMC Anesthesiology, 17(1). doi:10.1186/s12871-017-0316-4