Aims The effects of travel distance and travel time to the primary diabetes care provider and waiting time in the practice on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with type 2 diabetes are investigated. Research design and methods Survey data of 1313 persons with type 2 diabetes from six regions in England (274), Finland (163), Germany (254), Greece (165), the Netherlands (354), and Spain (103) were analyzed. Various multiple linear regression analyses with four different EQ-5D-3L indices (English, German, Dutch and Spanish index) as target variables, with travel distance, travel time, and waiting time in the practice as focal predictors and with control for study region, patient's gender, patient's age, patient's education, time since diagnosis, thoroughness of provider-patient communication were computed. Interactions of regions with the remaining five control variables and the three focal predictors were also tested. Results There are no interactions of regions with control variables or focal predictors. The indices decrease with increasing travel time to the provider and increasing waiting time in the provider's practice. Conclusions HRQoL of patients with type 2 diabetes might be improved by decreasing travel time to the provider and waiting time in the provider's practice.

Additional Metadata
Keywords EQ-5D, Health-related quality of life, Travel distance to provider, Travel time to provider, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Waiting time in provider's practice
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2017.01.014, hdl.handle.net/1765/97913
Journal Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Grant This work was funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme; grant id fp7/241741 - Operations management and demand-based approaches to healthcare outcomes and cost-benefits research (MANAGED OUTCOMES)
Citation
Konerding, U, Bowen, T. (Tom), Elkhuizen, S, Faubel, R, Forte, P, Karampli, E. (Eleftheria), … Torkki, P. (Paulus). (2017). The impact of travel distance, travel time and waiting time on health-related quality of life of diabetes patients: An investigation in six European countries. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 126, 16–24. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2017.01.014