Background. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with great heterogeneity in pathogenesis and clinical symptoms. Rheumatoid factor (RF) is one key indicator for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) while immunoglobulin E (IgE) is associated with type I hypersensitivity. To better categorize SLE subtypes, we determined the dominant cytokines based on familial SLE patients. Methods. RF, IgE, and multiple cytokines (i.e., IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ, IP-10, MCP-1, and MIP-1β) were measured in sera of familial SLE patients (n=3), noninherited SLE patients (n=108), and healthy controls (n=80). Results. Three familial SLE patients and 5 noninherited SLE cases are with features of RF+IgE+. These RF+IgE+ SLE patients expressed significantly higher levels of IL-1β and IL-6 than the other SLE patients (P<0.05). IL-6 correlated with both IgE and IL-1β levels in RF+IgE+ SLE patients (r2=0.583, P=0.027; r2=0.847, P=0.001), and IgE also correlated with IL-1β (r2=0.567, P=0.031). Conclusion. Both IL-1β and IL-6 are highly expressed cytokines in RF+IgE+ SLE subtype which may be related to the pathogenesis of this special SLE subtype and provide accurate treatment strategy by neutralizing IL-1β and IL-6.

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Journal Journal of Immunology Research
Wu, Y, Cai, B, Zhang, J, Shen, B, Huang, Z, Tan, C, … Wang, L. (2017). IL-1 β and IL-6 Are Highly Expressed in RF+IgE+ Systemic Lupus Erythematous Subtype. Journal of Immunology Research, 2017. doi:10.1155/2017/5096741