Context: Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is an aggressive tumor with a heterogeneous outcome. Prognostic stratification is difficult even based on tumor stage and Ki67. Recently integrated genomics studies have demonstrated that CpG islands hypermethylation is correlated with poor survival.

Objective: The goal of this study was to confirm the prognostic value of CpG islands methylation on an independent cohort.

Design: Methylation was measured by methylation-specific multiplex ligation–dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA).

Setting: MS-MLPA was performed in a training cohort of 50 patients with ACC to identify the best set of probes correlating with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). These outcomes were validated in an independent cohort from 21 ENSAT centers.

Patients: The validation cohort included 203 patients (64% women, median age 50 years, 80% localized tumors).

Main Outcome Measures: DFS and OS.

Results: In the training cohort, mean methylation of 4 genes (PAX5, GSTP1, PYCARD, PAX6) was the strongest methylation marker. In the validation cohort, methylation was a significant prognostic factor of DFS (P , 0.0001) and OS (P , 0.0001). Methylation, Ki67, and ENSAT stage were combined in multivariate models. For DFS, methylation (P = 0.0005) and stage (P , 0.0001) but not Ki67 (P = 0.19) remained highly significant. For OS, methylation (P = 0.0006), stage (P , 0.0001), and Ki67 (P = 0.024) were independent prognostic factors.

Conclusions: Tumor DNA methylation emerges as an independent prognostic factor in ACC. MSMLPA is readily compatible with clinical routine and should enhance our ability for prognostication and precision medicine.

Additional Metadata
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2016-3205, hdl.handle.net/1765/98640
Journal Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Grant This work was funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme; grant id fp7/259735 - European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumours - Structuring clinical research on adrenal cancers in adults (ENS@T-CANCER)
Citation
Jouinot, A, Assié, G, Libe, R, Fassnacht, M, Papathomas, T.G, Barreau, O, … Bertherat, J. (2017). DNA methylation is an independent prognostic marker of survival in adrenocortical cancer. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 102(3), 923–932. doi:10.1210/jc.2016-3205