Aims/hypothesis: Elevated levels of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Although weight loss improves conventional risk factors for CVD in type 2 diabetes, the effects on Lp(a) are unknown and may influence the long-term outcome of CVD after diet-induced weight loss. The aim of this clinical study was to determine the effect of diet-induced weight loss on Lp(a) levels in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes.
Methods: Plasma Lp(a) levels were determined by immunoturbidimetry in plasma obtained before and after 3–4 months of an energy-restricted diet in four independent study cohorts. The primary cohort consisted of 131 predominantly obese patients with type 2 diabetes (cohort 1), all participants of the Prevention Of Weight Regain in diabetes type 2 (POWER) trial. The secondary cohorts consisted of 30 obese patients with type 2 diabetes (cohort 2), 37 obese individuals without type 2 diabetes (cohort 3) and 26 obese individuals without type 2 diabetes who underwent bariatric surgery (cohort 4).
Results: In the primary cohort, the energy-restricted diet resulted in a weight loss of 9.9% (95% CI 8.9, 10.8) and improved conventional CVD risk factors such as LDL-cholesterol levels. Lp(a) levels increased by 14.8 nmol/l (95% CI 10.2, 20.6). In univariate analysis, the change in Lp(a) correlated with baseline Lp(a) levels (r = 0.38, p < 0.001) and change in LDL-cholesterol (r = 0.19, p = 0.033). In cohorts 2 and 3, the weight loss of 8.5% (95% CI 6.5, 10.6) and 6.5% (95% CI 5.7, 7.2) was accompanied by a median increase in Lp(a) of 13.5 nmol/l (95% CI 2.3, 30.0) and 11.9 nmol/l (95% CI 5.7, 19.0), respectively (all p < 0.05). When cohorts 1–3 were combined, the diet-induced increase in Lp(a) correlated with weight loss (r = 0.178, p = 0.012). In cohort 4, no significant change in Lp(a) was found (−7.0 nmol/l; 95% CI -18.8, 5.3) despite considerable weight loss (14.0%; 95% CI 12.2, 15.7).
Conclusions/interpretation: Diet-induced weight loss was accompanied by an increase in Lp(a) levels in obese individuals with and without type 2 diabetes while conventional CVD risk factors for CVD improved. This increase in Lp(a) levels may potentially antagonise the beneficial cardiometabolic effects of diet-induced weight reduction.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Apolipoprotein(a), Bariatric surgery, Diet, Lipoprotein(a), Obesity, Type 2 diabetes, Weight loss
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-017-4246-y, hdl.handle.net/1765/99139
Journal Diabetologia: clinical and experimental diabetes and metabolism
Citation
Berk, K.A.C, Yahya, R, Verhoeven, A.J.M, Touw, J, Leijten, F.P.J, van Rossum, E.F.C, … Mulder, M.T. (2017). Effect of diet-induced weight loss on lipoprotein(a) levels in obese individuals with and without type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia: clinical and experimental diabetes and metabolism, 60(6), 989–997. doi:10.1007/s00125-017-4246-y