In this paper we introduce dead-heading trips and adjusted passenger demand in the Rolling Stock Rescheduling Problem (RSRP). Unfortunately, disruptions disturb passenger railway transportation on a daily basis. Such a disruption causes infeasibilities in the timetable, rolling stock circulation, and crew schedule. We propose a Mixed-Integer Linear Programming model to tackle the RSRP. This formulation includes the possibility of using dead-heading trips (moving empty trains) during, and after, a disruption.
Furthermore, passenger flows are included to handle the adjusted passenger demand after the occurrence of a disruption. Many rolling stock rescheduling models are unable to cope with changing passenger demand. In this paper we include passenger demand on a more accurate level in the RSRP. We have tested the model on different cases from Netherlands Railways. The results show that dead-heading trips are useful to reduce the number of cancelled trips and that adjusted passenger demand has a large influence on the rescheduled circulation.

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Keywords Adjusted passenger demand, Dead-heading trips, Disruption management, Passenger flows, Rolling stock rescheduling
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Journal Transportation Research. Part B: Methodological
Wagenaar, J.C, Kroon, L.G, & Fragkos, I. (2017). Rolling stock rescheduling in passenger railway transportation using dead-heading trips and adjusted passenger demand. Transportation Research. Part B: Methodological, 101, 140–161. doi:10.1016/j.trb.2017.03.013