Background: In previous reports no differences in Leydig and Sertoli cell function were found between congenital undescended testis (CUDT) and acquired UDT (AUDT) on the basis of serum levels of LH, testosterone, FSH or inhibin B. This study tried to detect differences in Leydig and Sertoli cell function between CUDT and AUDT using insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH). Method: 118 men with a history of UDT (CUDT N = 55 (6/55 bilateral), AUDT N = 63 (15/63 bilateral)) were investigated. Differences between CUDT and AUDT, influence of age at surgery in CUDT, and effect of spontaneous descent or orchiopexy in AUDT were evaluated. Results: For INSL3, no significant differences were found. AMH levels in bilateral CUDT were significantly lower compared with bilateral AUDT (6.4 (1.7-11.4) vs 13.2 (6.1-30.1) μg/l, p = 0.02). AMH levels in unilateral CUDT were significantly higher than in bilateral CUDT (12.1 (2.4-43.7) vs. 6.4 (1.7-11.4) μg/l, p = 0.02). Conclusion: No differences in Leydig cell function on the basis of INSL3 levels between the different UDT groups were found. Sertoli cell function evaluated by AMH, was more negatively affected in bilateral CUDT in comparison with bilateral AUDT and unilateral CUDT. Level of evidence rating: Level III Treatment Study.

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Keywords Fertility, Leydig cell function, Orchiopexy, Sertoli cell function, Undescended testes
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Journal Journal of Pediatric Surgery
van Brakel, J, de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F, Hazebroek, F.W.J, Dohle, G.R, & de Jong, F.H. (2017). INSL3 and AMH in patients with previously congenital or acquired undescended testes. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 52(8), 1327–1331. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2017.03.064