Recent studies show that subtle variations in thyroid function, including subclinical thyroid dysfunction, and even variation in thyroid function within the normal range, are associated with morbidity and mortality. It is estimated that 40-65% of the inter-individual variation in serum TSH and FT4 levels is determined by genetic factors. To identify these factors, various linkage and candidate gene studies have been performed in the past, which have identified only a few genes. In the last decade, genome-wide association studies identified many new genes, while recent whole-genome sequencing efforts have also been proven to be effective. In the current review, we provide a systematic overview of these studies, including strengths and limitations. We discuss new techniques which will further clarify the genetic basis of thyroid function in the near future, as well as the potential use of these genetic markers in personalizing the management of thyroid disease patients.

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Keywords Genetic, Genome-wide association, HPT axis, Thyroid function, Whole-genome sequencing
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Journal Bailliere's Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Medici, M, Visser, T.J, & Peeters, R.P. (2017). Genetics of thyroid function. Bailliere's Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (Vol. 31, pp. 129–142). doi:10.1016/j.beem.2017.04.002