In the presence of oxygen, Euglena gracilis mitochondria function much like mammalian mitochondria. Under anaerobiosis, E. gracilis mitochondria perform a malonyl-CoA independent synthesis of fatty acids leading to accumulation of wax esters, which serve as the sink for electrons stemming from glycolytic ATP synthesis and pyruvate oxidation. Some components (enzymes and cofactors) of Euglena’s anaerobic energy metabolism are found among the anaerobic mitochondria of invertebrates, others are found among hydrogenosomes, the H2-producing anaerobic mitochondria of protists.

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Keywords Anaerobiosis, Euglena gracilis, Mitochondrial genome, Mitochondrion, Wax ester fermentation
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Series Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Zimorski, V, Rauch, C, van Hellemond, J.J, Tielens, A.G.M, & Martin, W.F. (2017). The mitochondrion of Euglena gracilis. In Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-54910-1_2