The classical paradigm of tuberculosis (TB) immunity, with a central protective role for Th1 responses and IFN-γ-stimulated cellular responses, has been challenged by unsatisfactory results of vaccine strategies aimed at enhancing Th1 immunity. Moreover, preclinical TB models have shown that increasing IFN-γ responses in the lungs is more damaging to the host than to the pathogen. Type 1 interferon signaling and altered Th17 responses have also been associated with active TB, but their functional roles in TB pathogenesis remain to be established. These two host responses have been studied in more detail in autoimmune diseases (AID) and show functional interactions that are of potential interest in TB immunity. In this review, we first identify the role of type 1 interferons and Th17 immunity in TB, followed by an overview of interactions between these responses observed in systemic AID. We discuss (i) the effects of GM-CSF-secreting Th17.1 cells and type 1 interferons on CCR2+ monocytes; (ii) convergence of IL-17 and type 1 interferon signaling on stimulating B-cell activating factor production and the central role of neutrophils in this process; and (iii) synergy between IL-17 and type 1 interferons in the generation and function of tertiary lymphoid structures and the associated follicular helper T-cell responses. Evaluation of these autoimmune-related pathways in TB pathogenesis provides a new perspective on recent developments in TB research.

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Keywords Antibodies, Autoimmune diseases, B-cell-activating factor, Inflammation, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Neutrophils, Tertiary lymphoid structures
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Journal Frontiers in Immunology
Grant This work was funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme; grant id fp7/280873 - Advanced Immunization Technologies (ADITEC), This work was funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme; grant id fp7/312661 - European Research Infrastructures for Poverty Related Diseases (EURIPRED)
Mourik, B.C, Lubberts, E.W, de Steenwinkel, J.E.M, Ottenhoff, T.H.M, & Leenen, P.J. (2017). Interactions between type 1 interferons and the Th17 response in tuberculosis: Lessons learned from autoimmune diseases. Frontiers in Immunology (Vol. 8). doi:10.3389/fimmu.2017.00294