A Prostate Cancer "Nimbosus": Genomic Instability and SChLAP1 Dysregulation Underpin Aggression of Intraductal and Cribriform Subpathologies
Background: Intraductal carcinoma (IDC) and cribriform architecture (CA) represent unfavorable subpathologies in localized prostate cancer. We recently showed that IDC shares a clonal ancestry with the adjacent glandular adenocarcinoma.
Objective: We investigated for the co-occurrence of "aggression" factors, genomic instability and hypoxia, and performed gene expression profiling of these tumors.
Design, setting, and participants: A total of 1325 men were treated for localized prostate cancer from four academic institutions (University Health Network, CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center [MSKCC], and Erasmus Medical Center). Pathological specimens were centrally reviewed. Gene copy number and expression, and intraprostatic oxygenation were assessed.
Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: IDC/CA was separately assessed for biochemical relapse risk in the Canadian and MSKCC cohorts. Both cohorts were pooled for analyses on metastasis.
Results and limitation: Presence of IDC/CA independently predicted for increased risks of biochemical relapse (HRCanadian 2.17, p <0.001; HRMSKCC 2.32, p =0.0035) and metastasis (HRpooled 3.31, p <0.001). IDC/CA+ cancers were associated with an increased percentage of genome alteration (PGA [median] 7.2 vs 3.0, p <0.001), and hypoxia (64.0% vs 45.5%, p =0.17). Combinatorial genomic-pathological indices offered the strongest discrimination for metastasis (C-index 0.805 [clinical+IDC/CA+PGA] vs 0.786 [clinical+IDC/CA] vs 0.761 [clinical]). Profiling of mRNA abundance revealed that long noncoding RNA, SChLAP1, was the only gene expressed at >3-fold higher (p <0.0001) in IDC/CA+ than in IDC/CA- tumors, independently corroborated by increased SChLAP1 RNA in situ hybridization signal. Optimal treatment intensification for IDC/CA+ prostate cancer requires prospective testing.
Conclusions: The poor outcome associated with IDC and CA subpathologies is associated with a constellation of genomic instability, SChLAP1 expression, and hypoxia. We posit a novel concept in IDC/CA+ prostate cancer, ". nimbosus" (gathering of stormy clouds, Latin), which manifests as increased metastatic capacity and lethality.
Patient summary: A constellation of unfavorable molecular characteristics co-occur with intraductal and cribriform subpathologies in prostate cancer. Modern imaging for surveillance and treatment intensification trials should be considered in this adverse subgroup. We posit a prostate cancer ". nimbosus" that is hallmarked by the constellation of genomic instability, SChLAP1 dysregulation, hypoxia, and intraductal-cribriform subpathologies. Patients harboring these prostate cancers should be closely monitored and are recommended intensified treatment against an increased risk of metastases.
|Keywords||Cribriform architecture, Genomic instability, Hypoxia, Intraductal carcinoma, Prognosis, SChLAP1|
|Persistent URL||dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2017.04.034, hdl.handle.net/1765/99831|
|Journal||European Urology : Official Journal of the European Association of Urology|
Chua, M.L.K. (Melvin L.K.), Lo, W. (Winnie), Pintilie, M, Murgic, J. (Jure), Lalonde, E. (Emilie), Bhandari, V. (Vinayak), … Bristow, R.G. (2017). A Prostate Cancer "Nimbosus": Genomic Instability and SChLAP1 Dysregulation Underpin Aggression of Intraductal and Cribriform Subpathologies. European Urology : Official Journal of the European Association of Urology. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2017.04.034