Background The Macdonald criteria and the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria defne radiologic parameters to classify therapeutic outcome among patients with malignant glioma and specify that clinical status must be incorporated and prioritized for overall assessment. But neither provides specifc parameters to do so. We hypothesized that a standardized metric to measure neurologic function will permit more effective overall response assessment in neuro-oncology.
Methods An international group of physicians including neurologists, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, and neurosurgeons with expertise in neuro-oncology drafted the Neurologic Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (NANO) scale as an objective and quantifable metric of neurologic function evaluable during a routine offce examination. The scale was subsequently tested in a multicenter study to determine its overall reliability, interobserver variability, and feasibility.
Results The NANO scale is a quantifable evaluation of 9 relevant neurologic domains based on direct observation and testing conducted during routine offce visits. The score defnes overall response criteria. A prospective, multinational study noted a >90% inter-observer agreement rate with kappa statistic ranging from 0.35 to 0.83 (fair to almost perfect agreement), and a median assessment time of 4 minutes (interquartile range, 3-5).
Conclusion The NANO scale provides an objective clinician-reported outcome of neurologic function with high inter-observer agreement. It is designed to combine with radiographic assessment to provide an overall assessment of outcome for neuro-oncology patients in clinical trials and in daily practice. Furthermore, it complements existing patient-reported outcomes and cognition testing to combine for a global clinical outcome assessment of well-being among brain tumor patients.

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Keywords Brain tumor, Neurologic function, Outcome, Response criteria
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Journal Neuro-Oncology
Nayak, L, Deangelis, L.M. (Lisa M.), Brandes, A, Peereboom, D.M. (David M.), Galanis, E, Lin, N.U, … Reardon, D.A. (2017). The Neurologic Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (NANO) scale: A tool to assess neurologic function for integration into the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria. Neuro-Oncology, 19(5), 625–635. doi:10.1093/neuonc/nox029