Aim Evaluation of long-term outcome of transvenous pacemaker (PM) implantation in infants. Methods and results A retrospective analysis of all transvenous PM implantations in infants <10kg between September 1997 and October 2001 was made. Indications for PM implantation, age at implantation, and determinants of long-term outcome including cardiac function, PM function, and PM (system) complications were noted. Seven patients underwent transvenous VVI(R) PM implantation. Median age at implantation was 3 days (range: 1 day to 14 months), median weight 3.5 kg (range: 2.3 -8.7 kg), and median follow-up 14 years (range: 12.3-16.3 years). Pacemaker indications were congenital complete atrioventricular block (n = 4), long QT syndrome with heart block (n = 2), and post-operative complete atrioventricular block with sinus node dysfunction (n = 1). No procedural complications were noted. Today all patients are alive and symptom free with good PM and cardiac function. Two patients underwent PM generator relocation for imminent skin necrosis and skin traction. Two patients suffered from asymptomatic left subclavian vein occlusion and developed thrombosis on the PM electrode. Three patients were converted to an epicardial PM system, due to atrial perforation after upgrading procedure (n = 1), syncope with need for implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation (n = 1), and systolic dysfunction with development of dilated cardiomyopathy, which normalized under cardiac resynchronization therapy pacing (n = 1). Two patients needed atrioventricular (AV) valve repair for severe insufficiency. Two patients underwent repositioning of dysfunctional PM leads. In five patients, transvenous leads were removed. Indications were elective lead replacement (n = 1), atrial perforation (n = 1), and switch to an epicardial system (n = 3). Conclusion Transvenous PM implantation in infants (<10kg) is associated with a high incidence of vascular occlusion, thrombosis, and severe atrioventricular valve regurgitation during long-term follow-up. We advocate an epicardial approach for PM implantation in small children.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Complications, Endocardial pacing, Infants, Pacemaker implantation, Paediatrics, Transvenous leads
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euw031, hdl.handle.net/1765/99939
Journal Europace
Citation
Vos, L.M. (Laura M.), Kammeraad, J.A.E, Freund, M.W, Blank, A.C, & Breur, J.M.P.J. (2017). Long-term outcome of transvenous pacemaker implantation in infants: A retrospective cohort study. Europace, 19(4), 581–587. doi:10.1093/europace/euw031