This article studies whether and why less educated natives are less ethnocentric in postindustrial Dutch cities than in industrial ones, as suggested by several theories in urban studies. A multilevel analysis of survey data collected among the native working populations (source: Cultural Change in the Netherlands Surveys 2004 and 2006) of 22 Dutch metropolitan agglomerations (sources: Statistics Netherlands Statline and Atlas of Municipalities) confirms that those concerned are indeed less ethnocentric in the most postindustrial cities. This pattern proves not to stem from the better opportunities at the bottom end of the labor market in these cities, as the ethnic competition theory suggests, but from the more tolerant cultural climate in these cities, as emphasized by Richard Florida in his work on creative cities.

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Keywords Bohemian index, Richard Florida, creative city, cultural tolerance, urban culture
Persistent URL,
Series Centre for Rotterdam Cultural Sociology (CROCUS)
Journal Urban Affairs Review
van der Waal, J, & Houtman, D. (2011). Tolerance in the postindustrial city: Assessing the ethnocentrism of less educated natives in 22 dutch cities. Urban Affairs Review, 47(5), 642–671. doi:10.1177/1078087411405770