Testing nested and non-nested periodically integrated autoregressive models
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Periodically integrated time series require a periodic differencing filter to remove the stochastic trend. A non-periodic integrated time series needs the first-difference filter for similar reasons. When the changing sea- sonal fluctuations for the non-periodic integrated series can be described by seasonal dummy variables for which the corresponding parameters are not constant within the sampie, such a series may not be easily & stinguished from a periodically integrated time series. In this paper, nested and non-nested testing procedures are proposed to distinguish between these two alternative stochastic and non-stochastic seasonal processes, When it is assumed there is a single unknown structural break in the seasonal dummy parameters. Several empirical examples using quarterly real macroeconomic time series for the United Kingdom illustrate the nested and non-nested approaches.