This is the main question that has guided this dissertation: How is neoliberal multiculturalism established in the context of the market-based interventions and strategies implemented in the Talamanca-Bribri and the Talamanca-Cabécar Indigenous Reserves (TBIR and TCIR, respectively) and how does this impinge on the possibility of the green economy to reach its objectives of environmental conservation and social inclusion for the Bribri and Cabécar people?

This question is accompanied by three other sub-research questions:
1. What are the main features of the wider conservation discourse in Costa Rica, how it is being transformed by ideas about the green economy and how has this affected the governance and intervention strategies of the market-based conservation projects being implemented in the TBIR and TCIR?
2. How do these key features relate to local Bribri and Cabécar territorialities at the level of regional and local governance levels?
3. How does neoliberal multiculturalism impact the possibilities of the market-based conservation projects implemented in the TBIR and TCIR of producing inclusive forms of development and conservation for the Bribri and the Cabécar people?

M.N. Spoor (Max) , B.E. Büscher (Bram)
Erasmus University Rotterdam
ISS PhD Theses
International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University (ISS)

Ramirez Cover, A. (2017, November 27). A political ecology of neoliberal multiculturalism : social Inclusion and Market-Based Conservation in Indigenous Costa Rica. ISS PhD Theses. Retrieved from