This chapter investigates the apparent paradox of individuals and communities who are convinced that the overall impact of the oil industry on their welfare is negative but nevertheless agree to the expansion and intensification of oil activities.

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Arsel, M, Pellegrini, L, & Mena, C.F. (2019). Maria's paradox: oil extraction and the misery of missing development alternatives in the Ecuadorian Amazon. In R. Kanbur, R. Sandbrook, and P. Shaffer, (Eds), Immiserizing Growth: When Growth Fails the Poor (pp. 203–225). Oxford: Oxford University Press. (pp. 203–255). Retrieved from