Atrial septal defect (ASD) closure is performed to prevent pulmonary hypertension (PH), which is associated with poor outcome. This study investigated the prevalence of PH in adults before and after ASD closure and explored associations between patient characteristics and PH after ASD closure. Consecutive adult patients who underwent surgical or percutaneous ASD closure in the Erasmus MC, the Netherlands, were included (2000 to 2014). Echocardiograms before and after ASD closure were retrospectively assessed. Patients were categorized into 3 groups (no PH, possible PH, and PH) based on tricuspid regurgitation velocity (<2.9, 2.9 to 3.4, and ≥3.4 m/s) or mean pulmonary arterial pressure (<20, 20 to 24, and ≥25 mm Hg). Cox regression was performed to identify associations between patient characteristics and PH after ASD closure. Of the 244 eligible patients who underwent ASD closure, 198 (81%) had echocardiograms both before and median 15 (interquartile range 12 to 35) months after ASD closure (median age at closure 45 [interquartile range 30 to 57] years, 75% woman). The prevalence of PH was 13.1% (n = 26) before ASD closure and 5.0% (n = 10) after closure. New York Heart Association III to IV (hazard ratio [HR] 11.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.12 to 39.29, p <0.001), pulmonary disease (HR 10.43, 95% CI 2.12 to 51.21, p = 0.004), cardiac medication use (HR 3.96, 95% CI 1.02 to 15.34, p = 0.047), right ventricular fractional area change (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.93, p <0.001), and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.95, p = 0.018) were significantly associated with PH. In conclusion, adult patients with low pulmonary pressures before ASD closure are not at risk of PH after closure. Nevertheless, PH remained prevalent in approximately 5% of patients. Especially those patients with high New York Heart Association functional class, presence of pulmonary disease, cardiac medication use and impaired RV function at baseline are at risk.

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Series VSNU Open Access deal
Journal The American Journal of Cardiology
Zwijnenburg, R.D., Baggen, V.J.M, Witsenburg, M, Boersma, H, Roos-Hesselink, J.W, & van den Bosch, A.E. (2019). Risk Factors for Pulmonary Hypertension in Adults After Atrial Septal Defect Closure. The American Journal of Cardiology, 123(8), 1336–1342. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2019.01.011