Objectives: Ventilator-associated pneumonia is one of the most frequent hospital-acquired infections in mechanically ventilated children. We reviewed the literature on the effectiveness of ventilator care bundles in critically ill children. Data Sources: Embase, Medline OvidSP, Web-of-Science, Cochrane Library, and PubMed were searched from January 1990 until April 2017. Study Selection: Studies were included if they met the following criteria: 1) implementation of a ventilator care bundle in PICU setting; 2) quality improvement or multicomponent approach with the (primary) objective to lower the ventilator-associated pneumonia rate (expressed as ventilator-associated pneumonia episodes/1,000 ventilator days); and 3) made a comparison, for example, with or without ventilator care bundle, using an experimental randomized or nonrandomized study design, or an interrupted-times series. Exclusion criteria were (systematic) reviews, guidelines, descriptive studies, editorials, or poster publications. Data Extraction: The following data were collected from each study: design, setting, patient characteristics (if available), number of ventilator-associated pneumonia per 1,000 ventilator days, ventilator-associated pneumonia definitions used, elements of the ventilator care bundle, and implementation strategy. Ambiguities about data extraction were resolved after discussion and consulting a third reviewer (M.N., E.I.) when necessary. We quantitatively pooled the results of individual studies, where suitable. The primary outcome, reduction in ventilator-associated pneumonia per 1,000 ventilator days, was expressed as an incidence risk ratio with a 95% CI. All data for meta-analysis were pooled by using a DerSimonian and Laird random effect model. Data Synthesis: Eleven articles were included. The median ventilator-associated pneumonia incidence decreased from 9.8 (interquartile range, 5.8–18.5) per 1,000 ventilator days to 4.6 (interquartile range, 1.2–8.6) per 1,000 ventilator days after implementation of a ventilator care bundle. The meta-analysis showed that the implementation of a ventilator care bundle resulted in significantly reduced ventilator-associated pneumonia incidences (incidence risk ratio = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.33–0.60; p < 0.0001; I 2 = 55%). Conclusions: Implementation of a ventilator-associated pneumonia bundle has the potential to reduce the prevalence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in mechanically ventilated children. (Pediatr Crit Care Med 2019; 20:474–480)

Additional Metadata
Keywords care bundle, children, evidence-based practice, implementation, pediatric intensive care, ventilator-associated pneumonia
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1097/pcc.0000000000001862, hdl.handle.net/1765/116851
Series VSNU Open Access deal
Journal Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Note corresponding author at UMC Amsterdam
de Neef, M, Bakker, L., Dijkstra, S., Raymakers-Janssen, P, Vileito, A., & Ista, E. (2019). Effectiveness of a Ventilator Care Bundle to Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia at the PICU: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, 20(5), 474–480. doi:10.1097/pcc.0000000000001862