Rotaviruses and noroviruses are the most important viral causes of acute gastroenteritis in children. While previous studies of acute gastroenteritis in Indonesia mainly focused on rotavirus, here, we investigated the burden and epidemiology of norovirus and rotavirus disease. Children less than fve years of age hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis were enrolled in this study from January to December 2015 at three participating hospitals. Rotavirus was detected by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), followed by genotyping by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Norovirus genogroups were determined by TaqManbased quantitative RT-PCR. Among 406 enrolled children, 75 (18.47%), 223 (54.93%) and 29 (7.14%) cases were positive for norovirus, rotavirus and both viruses (mixed infections), respectively. Most cases clinically presented with fever, diarrhea, vomiting and some degree of dehydration. The majority (n=69/75 [92%]) of the noroviruses identifed belonged to genogroup II, and several genotypes were identifed by sequencing a subset of samples. Among 35 samples tested for rotavirus genotype, the most prevalent genotype was G3P[8] (n=30/35 [85.6%]). Our study suggests that the burden of norovirus diseases in Indonesian children should not be underestimated. It also shows the emergence of rotavirus genotype G3P[8] in Indonesia.

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Journal Archives of Virology
Nirwati, H., Donato, C.M., Mawarti, Y., Mulyani, N.S., Ikram, A, Aman, A.T., … Hakim, M.S. (2019). Norovirus and rotavirus infections in children less than five years of age hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Indonesia. Archives of Virology, 164(6), 1515–1525. doi:10.1007/s00705-019-04215-y