Here we report on a Brazilian child who presented semilobar holoprosencephaly, frontonasal encephaloceles and bilateral cleft lip and palate. Malformations also included agenesis of the corpus callosum, abnormal cortical gyres, dilation of the aqueduct, bilateral endolymphatic sac, bilateral cystic cocci-vestibular malformation, and a cribriform defect. The 3D TC craniofacial images showed abnormal frontonasal transition region, with a bone bifurcation, and partial agenesis of nasal bone. The trunk and upper and lower limbs were normal. To our knowledge, this rare association of holoprocensephaly with frontonaso-orbital encephaloceles without limb anomalies has never been reported before. Karyotype was normal. SNP-array showed no copy-number alterations but revealed 25% of regions of homozygosity (ROH) with normal copy number, indicating a high coefficient of inbreeding, which significantly increases the risk for an autosomal recessive disorder. Whole exome sequencing analysis did not reveal any pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants. We discuss the possible influence of two variants of uncertain significance found within the patient's ROHs. First, a missense p.(Gly394Ser) in PCSK9, a gene involved in the regulation of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Second, an inframe duplication p.(Ala75_Ala81dup) in SP8, a zinc-finger transcription factor that regulates signaling centers during craniofacial development. Further studies and/or the identification of other patients with a similar phenotype will help elucidate the genetic etiology of this complex case.

Additional Metadata
Keywords encephalocele, holoprosencephaly, oral cleft, regions of homozygosity, SNP-array, SP8
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61305, hdl.handle.net/1765/118669
Journal American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Citation
Richieri-Costa, A. (Antonio), Zechi-Ceide, R.M, Candido-Souza, R.M. (Rosana M.), Monteiro, R.A.C. (Rejane A. C.), Tonello, C. (Cristiano), de Freitas, M.L. (Mariana L.), … Jehee, F.S. (2019). Holoprosencephaly, orofacial cleft, and frontonaso-orbital encephaloceles: Genetic evaluation of a possible new syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.61305