Smoking during pregnancy is associated with a multitude of health behaviors and with the psychosocial and socio-economic circumstances of pregnant women. Limited research has so far been conducted on the clustering of these characteristics and on their effect on pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to identify different groups of pregnant women based on their behavioral, psychosocial and socio-economic characteristics and their pregnancy outcomes. In total, 2455 women who were 12 weeks pregnant completed a questionnaire on smoking behavior, health behaviors and psychosocial and socio-economic characteristics. Neonatal and maternal outcomes were extracted from the Dutch perinatal registration. Subgroups were identified with latent class analysis and adverse pregnancy outcomes were compared between subgroups with logistic regression. Women were classified into four latent classes. Two classes represented the healthy higher-educated pregnant women who did not smoke: one group of multigravida women and one of primigravida women, also characterized by less pregnancy-specific knowledge and more pregnancy-related stress. The remaining women were grouped into two less healthy groups. One group frequently quit smoking, reported less healthy eating, less physical activity and comparable stress levels as the healthy higher-educated groups. The last group contained the most smokers, had the highest scores on psychosocial and pregnancy-related stress and the most adverse socio-economic circumstances. This group had an increased risk of adverse maternal outcomes, in particular developing diabetes during pregnancy. A comprehensive and integrated approach is needed to improve outcomes in pregnancies with a combination of adverse health, psychosocial, and socio-economic conditions.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Adverse perinatal outcomes, Health behaviors, Latent class analyses, Pregnancy, Psychosocial stress, Smoking
Persistent URL,
Series VSNU Open Access deal
Journal Preventive Medicine
Note corresponding author at Leiden University
Crone, M.R, Luurssen-Masurel, N. (N.), Bruinsma-van Zwicht, B.S. (B. S.), van Lith, J.M.M, & Rijnders, M.E.B. (2019). Pregnant women at increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes: A combination of less healthy behaviors and adverse psychosocial and socio-economic circumstances. Preventive Medicine, 127. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2019.105817