The importance of the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in age-related cardiovascular disease: Focus on phosphodiesterase-1 and soluble guanylate cyclase
Among ageing-related illnesses, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality causing one-third of all deaths worldwide. Ageing evokes a number of functional, pharmacological and morphological changes in the vasculature, accompanied by a progressive failure of protective and homeostatic mechanisms, resulting in target organ damage. Impaired vasomotor, proliferation, migration, antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory function in both the endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells are parts of the vascular ageing phenotype. The endothelium regulates these functions by the release of a wide variety of active molecules including endothelium-derived relaxing factors such as nitric oxide, prostacyclin (PGI2) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH). During ageing, a functional decay of the nitric oxide pathway takes place. Nitric oxide signals to VSMC and other important cell types for vascular homeostasis through the second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Maintenance of proper cGMP levels is an important goal in sustainment of proper vascular function during ageing. For this purpose, different components can be targeted in this signalling system, and among them, phosphodiesterase-1 (PDE1) and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) are crucial. This review focuses on the role of PDE1 and sGC in conditions that are relevant for vascular ageing.
|aging, guanylate cyclase, hypertension, nitric oxide, phosphodiesterase-1, vascular disease|
|VSNU Open Access deal|
|Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology|
|Organisation||Department of Internal Medicine|
Golshiri, K. (Keivan), Ataei Ataabadi, E. (Ehsan), Portilla-Fernandez, E, Danser, A.H.J, & Roks, A.J.M. (2019). The importance of the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in age-related cardiovascular disease: Focus on phosphodiesterase-1 and soluble guanylate cyclase. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology. doi:10.1111/bcpt.13319